Vervical kreften tidlig symptomer og tegn

Livmorhalskreft symptomer

I de fleste tilfeller har livmorhalskreft ikke føre til merkbare symptomer i tidlige stadier av sykdommen. Rutinemessig celle screening er viktig å se etter unormale celler i livmorhalsen, slik at de kan overvåkes og behandles så tidlig som mulig. De fleste kvinner rådes til å få en Pap test starter på 21 år.

Pap test er en av de mest pålitelige og effektive kreft screening metoder tilgjengelig, og kvinner bør ha årlige eksamener ved en OB-GYN. Imidlertid kan det Pap-testen ikke påvise noen tilfeller av unormale celler i livmorhalsen. HPV-testen skjermer kvinner for høyrisiko HPV-stammer som kan føre til cervikal kreft. Den er godkjent for kvinner over 30 år.

Selv om screeningsmetoder er ikke 100 prosent nøyaktig, men disse testene er ofte en effektiv metode for påvisning av kreft i livmorhalsen i de tidlige stadier når det er fortsatt svært behandles. Snakk med legen din om hvilken type livmorhalskreft screening er riktig for deg.

Livmorhalskreft symptomer

Når de er tilstede, kan vanlige symptomer på livmorhalskreft inkluderer:

  • Vaginal blødning: Dette omfatter blødning mellom perioder, etter samleie eller postmenopausal blødning.
  • Uvanlig utflod: En vannaktig, rosa eller illeluktende utflod er vanlig.
  • Bekkensmerter: smerte under samleie eller til andre tider kan være et tegn på unormale endringer i livmorhalsen, eller mindre alvorlige forhold.

Alle disse livmorhalskreft symptomene bør diskuteres med legen din.

Tegn på avanserte stadier av livmorhalskreft

Cervical cancer may spread (metastasize) within the pelvis, to the lymph nodes or elsewhere in the body. Signs of advanced cervical cancer include:

  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Back pain
  • Leg pain or swelling
  • Leakage of urine or feces from the vagina
  • Bone fractures

Cervical cancer risk factors

Infection of the cervix with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. However, not all women with an HPV infection will develop cervical cancer.

Routine Pap testing is the best way to detect abnormal changes to the cervix before they develop into cancer. Because of this, women who do not regularly have a Pap test are at increased risk of developing the disease.

GENERAL

  • Pregnancy: Women who have had three or more full-term pregnancies, or who had their first full-term pregnancy before age 17, are twice as likely to get cervical cancer.

GENETICS

  • Family history: Women with a sister or mother who had cervical cancer are two to three times more likely to develop cervical cancer.

LIFESTYLE

  • Sexual history: Certain types of sexual behavior are considered risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV infection. These include: sex before age 18, sex with multiple partners and sex with someone who has had multiple partners. Studies also show a link between chlamydia infection and cervical cancer.
  • Smoking: A woman who smokes doubles her risk of cervical cancer.
  • Oral contraceptive use: Women who take oral contraceptives for more than five years have an increased risk of cervical cancer, but this risk returns to normal within a few years after the pills are stopped.

OTHER CONDITIONS

  • Weakened immune system: In most people with healthy immune systems, the HPV virus clears itself from the body within 12-18 months. However, people with HIV or other health conditions or who take medications that limit the body’s ability to fight off infection have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer.
  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES): Women whose mothers took DES, a drug given to some women to prevent miscarriage between 1940 and 1971, have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer.
  • HPV: Though HPV causes cancer, having HPV does not mean you will get cancer. The majority of women who contract HPV clear the virus or have treatment so the abnormal cells are removed. HPV is a skin infection, spread through skin-to-skin contact with a person who has the virus. Learn about the HPV vaccine to prevent HPV infections.

Additional facts about HPV:

  • There are more than 100 types of HPV, 30-40 of which are sexually transmitted.
  • Of these, at least 15 are high-risk HPV strains that can cause cervical cancer. The others cause no symptoms or genital warts.
  • Up to 80 percent of women will contract HPV in their lifetime. Men get HPV, too, but there is no test for them.
  • A healthy immune system will usually clear the HPV virus before there is a symptom, including the high-risk types of HPV.
  • Bare en liten prosentandel av kvinner med høy risiko HPV utvikle livmorhalskreft.